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74 Years of independence

India got freedom from the British who ruled the country for over two hundred yearson 15th August 1947.
The day is celebrated annually across the Country as the Independence Day of India.People gather to pay their gratitude to the leaders and martyrs who sacrificed their lives during the struggle to attain freedom.
|| By Arsh verma

Independence Day is considered one of the most significant days in the history of India as it reminds us of the bravery and sacrifices of our freedom fighters. Every year on Independence Day, India witnesses a huge celebration with tricolor flag hoisting, parades, and cultural functions across the country.

Let us have a look at some major incidents after Independence.

India-China War(1962)

Just after independence in 1961, India faced the inhumanity of war. Communist China, took advantage of the post-colonial scenario in India and attacked on October 20, 1962, in Ladakh with around 80,000 soldiers with an unprepared Indian military which numbered anywhere around 10,000.India lost around 3,250 soldiers and about 43,000 square kilometers of land in Aksai Chin. And both countries declared a formal ceasefire on November 19, under international pressure which is now known as the Line of actual(LAC) control.

India-Pakistan War(1971)

It was a war of just 13 dayscounted among the shortest wars in historybut resulted in the creation of Bangladesh. The war effectively comes to an end when the Pakistani army signed the ‘Instrument of surrender (1971) on December 16. India defeated Pakistan and won the war(Bangladesh liberation war) Approx.93000 Pakistani troops were surrendered

The Indian military celebrates this day as Vijay Diwas on 16 December every year.

The Emergency (1975)

India faced its black day on June 25, 1975, when the ex. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi imposed an Emergency on the whole nation which was ended on March 21. 1977. The people of the country lost their fundamental rights. Various opposition leaders were arrested for protesting against the state of emergency

It was the first and last time when Indian Press faced censorship and journalist were preventively arrest. Some press agencies were banned. It was a major assault on India’s democracy and still, it is considered the darkest period in independent India.

Operation Bluestar (1984)

Operation Bluestar was directed by ex. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Which was carried out between June 1 and June 8, 1984, in remove Sikh militants who were accumulating weapons in the Harmandir Sahib Complex (Golden Temple). Mainly to capture or kill the Khalistani movement leader ‘Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale’ and his group of supporters and after a week of struggle on June 7, the army had full control over the Harmandir Sahib complex (Golden temple). Bhindranwale was killed in the operation along with many of his leading men.

Death Toll

Official reports put the number of deaths among the Indian army at554 Sikh militants and civilians and 83 officers and soldiers of the militarythough independent estimates ran much higher.

On 10 of June, the operation was over.

The assassination of Indira Gandhi

Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984 by her Sikh bodyguards as an act of revenge for the operation. This led to the anti-Sikh riots of 1984 in Delhi and other parts of north India. In 1986, the Chief of Army Staff at the time of the operation General A.S. Vaidya was assassinated in revenge by Sikh militants. The bombing of Air India Flight 182 in 1985 is believed to have been another act of revenge for the operation.

Many Sikh soldiers in the Indian Army mutinied because of the operation. Many Sikhs resigned from administrative positions in the government.

Operation Black Thunder

Itis known as the second phase of Operation Blue Star. The first phase was carried out on April 30, 1986, while the second Operation Black Thunder began on May 9, 1988. To remove remaining Sikh militants from the Golden temple. It was carried out by Black Cat commandos of National Security Guards (NSG)using tanks, artillery, helicopters, and armored vehicles.

There was indeed a lot of anguish among the whole Sikh community in India and abroad over the storming of their mostholy place (Golden temple)Although It is just aftermath that ex. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated because of Operation Bluestar.

The assassination Of Indira Gandhi led to the Anti-Sikh Riots across India on 1 November 1984. It continued for a few days, which killed more than 3,000 Sikhs.

The popular memories of the massacre continue to influence the politics in Punjab even today and some of the court cases related to the riots are still in progress even after more than 30 years of the riots.

The Exodus of Kashmiri Pandits (1990)

January 19 is observed as the ‘Black day’ by the Kashmiri Pandit community and is always remembered as the “genocide” of Kashmiri Pandits.

The exodus of Kashmiri pandits was the only rememberable dark event noted in the history of India, where the Sermons of Azadi echoed from the loudspeakers of the mosques. Posters asking Kashmiri Pandits to leave were pasted on the walls, females were raped, Kashmiri pandits say that they were only given two choices either leave their native homeland Kashmir either they have to convert their religion to Islam.

Terrorist role

Chief Minister of that time Farooq Abdullah ordered to release of a batch of Terrorists who had crossed over and landed in the terrorist training camps in Pakistan Administered Jammu and Kashmir. While returning to Kashmir they had been arrested by the Border Security Forces(BSF) and handed over to the local Police which registered cases against them.

Parliament attack (2001)

On 13 December 2001 Terrorist of Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed, stormed the Parliament complex in New Delhi and opened fire indiscriminately. Five terrorists entered the premises of Parliament in a white ambassador with a fake logo Home Ministry Logo on its windshield. It was around 40 minutes this time that the Parliament had been adjourned.The Terrorist took a wrong turn and when the car was forced to turn back, it collided with the car of Vice President Krishan Kant. This collision brought all the attention of the Parliament Guards to them and then the terrorists, having nowhere to go,Theystepped got down from the car and opened fire on anyone they saw in the Parliamentary complex. The terrorists were carrying AK-47s, heavy bags of equipment, and explosives strapped to their bodies.One of the terrorists was the human bomb who went to Gate No. 1 and blew himself up. The body of the suicide bomber was found later without arms and legs.

How the situation was controlled

The entire parliament complex was sealed by the Police. Security forces of Delhi Police, Black Cat Commandos, Central Reserve Police Force were all brought to control the situation.

All the political members were safely evacuated from the building with the help of defense forces without any harm. Later Ex. Prime minister Atal Behari Vajpayeeaddressed the nation on television and said, “This was not just an attack on the building, it was a warning to the entire nation and we accept the challenge.”

Mumbai Terror Attacks (2008)

The terrorist attack which happened on November 26, 2008, is popularly known as 26/11.

Multiple bombings took place in different parts of the city, the Chhatrapati Terminus railway station was attacked and terrorists infiltrated the Taj hotel. Overall, 166 people lost their lives in a terror attack carried out over a period of three days by ten terrorists.

Before 26/11, terrorism had never been covered the way it was done in this case by the media. It had become an integral part of public discourse. There was live coverage of the confrontation between the Indian security forces and the terrorists. Ajmal Kasab, the only terrorist captured alive by the police was later hanged on November 21, 2012.

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