Even though the Indian Space Agency ISRO has suffered a setback in the Chandrayaan-2 mission as it had lost contact with Vikram Lander. But, ISRO scientists at last located it before some days and now are trying to switch on the communication system installed in it for Chandrayaan-2 for further course of action to land on the surface of the moon.
|| Saniya Mishra
Now, along with ISRO, the US space agency NASA is also helping ISRO.
But, meanwhile, former director of ISRO’s Space Application Center Ahmedabad and Adjunct Professor of IIT Kharagpur, Tapan Mishra explained what could be the three major reasons for the deterioration of the mission just before the landing of VIKRAM on Moon.
Professor Tapan Mishra scientifically explained in a phased manner on his social media account how the landing may have gone wrong and where attention was needed at that time.
Let’s try to understand these Three Big reason as put forwarded by Prof. Tapan Misha.
1. The thrusters(Controls Altitude) should not start at the right time
The Vikram lander was traveling at a speed of 1.66 km per second at an altitude of 30 km above the lunar surface.
When it had to land on the lunar surface, Vikram Lander had to be upright and his speed needed to be 2 meters per second. Vikram Lander has five big thrusters. Which would help him in landing. With the help of these thrusters, Vikram Lander also travelled around the moon. Apart from these, there are 8 small thrusters on Vikram Lander.
Thrusters are like small rockets that help propel an object forward or backward.
Five big thrusters were engaged for the smooth operation of Vikram. Four thrusters in four corners and one in the middle. These would help to take Vikram up and down. Whereas, 8 small thrusters would help in Vikram’s direction. It may be that at the altitude of 400 meters above the lunar surface, all the big thrusters do not have fuel simultane .It would have happened that not all the thrusters started simultaneously. The result is that the Vikram lander must have moved quickly and lost balance. At this time the Vikram lander must be moving in the same way as the sparkling fireworks in’ Diwali’.
2. The Fuel couldn’t reach at the engine at the right time with appropriate amount of fuel
The huge part of the Vikram lander is a fuel tank. Due to the high speed , braking, the fuel must be bouncing in its tank in the same way as water bounces in the water tub. Due to this, fuel would not have reached the engine nozzle properly. Because of this, there may be a disturbance in the landing due to the lack of full fuel to the thrusters at the exact time of landing.
Vikram Lander’s speed was 1.66 km / s (6000 km / h) and 60 m / s (200 km / h) in coming from a height of 30 km to a height of 400 meters. The direction of the lander was also vertical from horizontal. The four thrusters at the corners were working throughout this time while the middle thruster was off.
The direction of the lander turned vertical at an altitude of 400 meters. Two of the four lower thrusters were turned off and two smaller side-mounted thrusters were turned on so that Vikram could hover like a helicopter while coming down and find the right place for landing.
But nowhere did any thruster support Vikram Lander.
This must have happened because the fuel did not reach all the working thrusters simultaneously.
3. Vikram could not able to fight with the gravity of the moon
Vikram Lander cruised like a helicopter at a height of 100 meters from the lunar surface. Small thrusters on the side were on to tolerate the moon’s gravitational force. The Vikram lander’s camera searches for the landing place and then descends. The picture taken with the camera matches the picture stored in the onboard computer. After this, Vikram Lander stopped hovering and slowly shut down four big thrusters and came down with the help of middle fifth thruster.
At this time, the radar altimeter in the Vikram lander took care of the height of it. Since the landing was fully automatic, it could not be controlled from the earth. Here, gravity could not be detected by Vikram Lander, as there is a change in the effect of gravity on the surface of the Moon.